1. Identification & Assessment
  2. Goal Setting
  3. Intervention
  4. More Information

1. Identification & Assessment

1.1 Identification: Clinical Resources

1.2 Standardized Assessments

See the Identification section and the Measure Meaningful Outcomes sub-section (under Planning Interventions & Goals) for more information about:

  • Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC) & MABC-2
  • Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT) & BOT-2
  • Assessment of Life Habits (LIFE-H)
  • Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scale – 2nd edition (VABS-2)

1.3 Evidence-Base for Identification and Assessment
  • Missiuna, C., Gaines, R., & Soucie, H. (2006). Why every office needs a tennis ball: A new approach to assessing the clumsy child. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 175(5), 471-473.
    • This article uses a case study to explain DCD’s natural history, screening, referral and treatment. It also provides text boxes summarizing the diagnostic criteria and the differential diagnosis of DCD, and a figure summarizing typical concerns noted by parents across childhood ages.

2. Goal Setting

2.1 Goal Setting: Tools and Resources

See the Measure Meaningful Outcomes sub-section (under Planning Interventions & Goals) for more information about:

Clinical resources:

3. Intervention

3.1 Resources to Use with Children
3.2 Resources to Use with Families
3.3 Resources to Use with Educators and with Schools
3.4 To Foster Skills Acquisition, Promote Physical Activity and Quality of Life
3.5 To Share with Other Healthcare Providers
3.6 Evidence-Base for Intervention

4. More Information

4.1 Summaries about DCD
  • DCD: A Quick Reference in 5 C’s: A summary of DCD in 5 C’s: common, clumsy, chronic health condition, co-occurring conditions and consequences.
  • Possible Causes of DCD: A document describing the difficulties that children with DCD experience, including planning motor tasks, organizing movements, performing coordinated actions, and/or adjusting when demands change conditions.
  • Motor Learning Deficits: This excerpt describes the motor learning deficits that children with DCD experience and provides rationale for why these deficits may be occurring.
4.2 Websites about DCD
  • CanChild's DCD Website. The website provides an introduction to DCD, educational materials and resources for parents and healthcare professionals.
  • European Academy of Childhood Disability (EADC): The EACD provides access to different resources on its website, including guidelines regarding the identification and treatment of children with DCD.
  • Movement Matters: This website provide information about a UK based organization that brings together key parties involved in DCD in the UK. This page specifically, provides access to the UK Guidelines for DCD. Additionally, on their website you can find more information and resources on DCD.
4.3 Book Chapters about DCD
  • Rivard, L., Missiuna, C., Pollock, N., & David, K. (2011). Developmental coordination disorder. In S. Campbell, M. Orlin, & R. Palisano (Eds.), Physical therapy for children (4th ed.) (pp. 498-538). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
4.4 Articles about DCD
4.4.1 Additional Articles of Interest
4.4.2 Numbered References in the Module
Note: All professional rehabilitations registered in Ontario have free access to a bank of articles via Electronic Health Library. For more information visit their website.
  1. Blank, R., Smits-Engelsman, B., Polatajko, H., & Wilson, P. (2012). European academy for childhood disability (EACD): Recommendations on the definition, diagnosis and intervention of developmental coordination disorder (long version). Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 54(1), 54-93.
  2. Schmidt & Lee, 2005. Schmidt, R. A., & Lee, T. D. (2005). Motor control and learning: A behavioral emphasis. Human Kinetics Publishers.
  3. Niemeijer, A. S., Smits-Engelsman, B. C. M., Reynders, K. and Schoemaker, M. M. (2003). Verbal actions of physiotherapists to enhance motor learning in children with DCD. Human Movement Science, 22, 567- 581.
  4. Zwicker, J. L. and Harris, S. R. (2009). A reflection on motor learning theory in pediatric occupational therapy practice. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 76, 29-37.
  5. Levac, D., Wishart, L., Missuina, C., and Wright, V. (2012). The application of motor learning strategies within functionally based interventions for children with neuromotor conditions. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 21, 345-355.
  6. Toglia, J. P., Rodger, S. A., and Polatajko, HH. J. (2012). Anatomy of cognitive strategies: A therapist's primer for enabling occupational performance. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 79, 225-236.
  7. Missiuna, C. A., Pollock, N. A., Levac, D.E., Campbell, W.N., Whalen, S. D., Bennett, S. M., Hecimovich, C. A., Gaines, B. R., Cairney, J., and Russell, D.J. (2012). Partnering for Change: An innovative school-based occupational therapy service delivery model for children with developmental coordination disorder. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 79, 41-50.
  8. Salmon, G., Cleave, H., & Samuel, C. (2006). Development of multiagency referral pathways for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, developmental coordination disorder and autistic spectrum disorders: Reflections on the process and suggestions for new ways of working. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 11(1), 63-81.

Summary of resources:

The following document presents a summary of the resources presented in the module, as well as some additional resources. Please click here to download DCD resources for physiotherapists.